Tips for setting consulting fees

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Determining how much you should charge clients for your consulting services isn’t an exact science, but these recommendations can help guide you in the right direction.
A woman using her calculator to determine consulting fees

No matter what type of consulting business you operate, deciding how much to charge clients can be a tough balancing act. If you set your consulting fees too high, you risk pricing yourself out of the market. If your rates are too low, clients might undervalue your knowledge and skills and hire a competitor instead.

Either way, your business will suffer if your fees don’t hit the sweet spot, and you may have a difficult time turning a profit or even keeping your practice afloat.

While there is no right or wrong answer when it comes to how much consultants charge, consider the following tips to help you continue to win new clients and grow your business.

Common consulting fee structures

First, it’s important to think about how you want to bill clients. The three most common consulting fee structures are:

  • Hourly rates
  • Project-based fees
  • Monthly retainers

If you’re an independent consultant and new to the field, your first instinct might be to choose one pricing model for all clients and projects to avoid headaches with invoicing. Consulting experts recommend a more flexible approach to your pay rate based on the situation.

For example, if you’re working on a project with shifting priorities and moving timelines, it may make sense to charge by the hour. On the other hand, if a client offers you a job with a more specific scope and predetermined milestones and outcomes, you might choose to bill them for the entire project.

If the scope of work entails being available on an as-needed basis, consider charging the client a monthly retainer where you’ll perform a certain amount of work for a specified amount of money upfront, or for a daily rate. While working on a retainer is frequently more demanding, it also provides a regular source of income.

Of course, determining whether to charge a flat rate, project fee, or hourly market rate is only part of this equation. You also have to figure out what kind of income you’ll need and what the market will bear.

Strategies for setting your hourly consulting rates

There are several approaches you can use in determining how much to charge clients for your consulting work. New consultants will be less likely to charge as much as those with a higher level of experience, as companies may be less willing to hire beginners for a consulting project.

For this reason, it’s recommended to consider the following factors when setting your hourly consulting rates.

Your competitors’ rates

Research what other consultants in your industry charge their clients by the hour and use that as a measure for setting your own fees. You can likely find some information about competitors’ consulting rates online or through your LinkedIn connections. Industry trade groups and associations within your field may offer some insight on this, along with networking at industry events.

Your historic rates or salary

If you’ve been in business for a while, use the consulting fees that you have charged past clients as a general guideline, and perhaps modestly increase them periodically. If your consulting practice is relatively new, you can use your former salary as a general gauge of how much you should charge per hour or project.

Your specific expertise

Consultants who have established a track record of consulting success on particular types of projects or working in specific industries may be able to increase their rates based on their added value.

For example, if you are a marketing consultant who specializes in helping telecommunications businesses execute hyperlocal advertising campaigns, you can potentially justify charging a higher rate when you are hired to work on a similar project.

Check with headhunters

Recruiters, headhunters, and staffing agencies that specialize within your field can be a tremendous resource for figuring out what the market will bear, as well as help find potential clients. Keep in mind that any staffing firm who finds work for you will take a percentage of your pay for setting up the deal.

Use a full-time salary as a guide

One way to determine your rates as a consultant is to figure how much you’d earn at a full-time job doing the same kind of work. Online job boards like Indeed, Glassdoor, and the data compensation company, PayScale, allow you to research salary data based on job titles and location.

To convert a salary to an hourly rate, simply divide the annual figure by 50 (52 weeks minus two weeks of vacation), then divide that weekly figure by 40 to get the hourly wage. Of course, this hourly rate does not account for the benefits that full-time employees receive. On average, employee benefits account for more than 30 percent of a full-time salary before taxes.

The cost of benefits for yourself, plus your small business insurance, will likely be more expensive for your consulting firm than those of larger businesses, as those companies can benefit from certain tax advantages and economy of scale.

One rule of thumb you can use to determine how much to charge customers for your services is to take a full-time employee’s hourly rate and multiply it by three.

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How to set project-based consulting fees and retainers

Setting your fees based on individual projects can be a bit trickier than simply quoting an hourly rate. You’ll have to determine how many hours a project will likely take and multiply that by your hourly rate.

Setting monthly retainers can be even more difficult as you’ll need a good estimation of the kind of work you’ll be doing and how much time your client will require. Some clients might not be aware of how often they’ll need your services, while others might underestimate their needs to try and negotiate a lower fee.

One option would be to specify how many hours you can offer a client each month in exchange for an initial fee, while any additional work would be billed at an hourly rate. Some consultants will discount their initial fees to attract clients, while specifying that any additional work beyond the agreed number of hours would be billed at a higher rate.

Consider your expenses when setting consulting rates

Remember that as a self-employed small business owner, your consulting fees need to cover more than just your salary. Expenses to think about when establishing your rates include:

General expenses

Even if you’re working remotely most of the time, you’ll need to pay for internet service, and if your computer or mobile phone dies, you’ll have to replace it out of your own pocket. If your consulting business is large enough to require office space, you will need to account for monthly rental payments.

Travel expenses

Although some clients might reimburse you for travel expenses, there’s no guarantee that they will. If you expect clients to pay for work-related travel costs, specify that in your contract.

HR expenses

Whether your consulting business has full-time employees or if you need to frequently hire contractors to help with specific projects, you will need to pay them for their work.

Healthcare costs

Experienced consultants may have grown accustomed to paying for their own medical insurance, but newcomers to the field might not consider how much healthcare premiums can impact their bottom line.

Business insurance

Like any business, consultants should purchase insurance to protect themselves. Consultants typically acquire general liability insurance to cover injuries to clients or damage to their property, as well as professional liability insurance to account for work mistakes or missed deadlines that could lead to lawsuits.

In some cases, consultants might also need workers’ compensation and commercial auto insurance policies depending on state laws.

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